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As the country marks the fifth anniversary of the signing of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement that ended a devastating civil war, southern Sudan has seen a major upsurge in violence. In 2009, some 2,500 people were killed and 350,000 fled their homes. This joint NGO paper is a wake-up call for the international community to an increasingly alarming situation. It explores the rising insecurity in Southern Sudan; urgently needed measures to protect civilians from violence; the critical humanitarian situation and steps to strengthen emergency relief; and the failure to deliver development, necessitating accelerated delivery of essential services to a disillusioned population and capacity building support to all levels of the Government of Southern Sudan.