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An essay by Alice Binazzi Daniel that is part of an Essay Contest on the problems of childhood and adolescence in Latin America, launched by the Institute for the Preparation of Educators for Youth, Adolescents and Child Workers in Latin America and the Caribbean (IFEJANT), Peru. The essay – recently published in IFEJANT’s manual “Reflexiones y Avatares para la infancia del siglo XXI” – refers to the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (OPSC) as a key instrument to the CRC that enhances the protection of children from sale, prostitution and child pornography. The OPSC addresses the transnational dimension of child abuse and the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, prompted by globalization, increased human mobility and the strong impact of new technologies. The paper alludes to the role of the OPSC and its call to State parties that sexual exploitation offences be treated as criminal acts, promoting prevention through education, awareness-raising, empowerment, children’s participation in community settings and the protection and rehabilitation of the victims, to ensure that these grave violations are brought to justice and that victims are adequately compensated forthe injuries suffered.