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This research briefly describes the prevalence of physical and verbal maltreatment among highly vulnerable children (HVC) in areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Aftrica, and identifies factors associated with maltreatment. Data were collected for the baseline phase of a longitudinal study led by Tulane University with funding from USAID Southern Africa. Analysis indicates that maltreatment is widespread and may contribute to depression and behavioral problems in children. Analysis further highlights that children living in homes affected by illness may be at greater risk for maltreatment. Results suggest that offering psychosocial support for parents and other caregivers, as well as training and information about healthy discipline alternatives, may be useful programmatic approaches.